Chapter 8

09/08/2012

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Terms

Shay’s Rebellion- A rebellion of farmers against merchants in which the farmers wanted relief from the economic depression which had hit. Agricultural prices were at an all time low, but merchants still insisted that payments for goods be made with hard money, as paper money was rejected.

Annapolis Convention- Conference of state delegates at Annapolis, Maryland that issued a call in September 1786 for a convention to meet at Philadelphia to consider fundamental changes.

Virginia Plan- Proposal calling for a national legislature in which states would be represented according to population.

New Jersey Plan- Proposal of the New Jersey delegation for a strengthened national government in which all states would have equal representation in a unicameral legislature.

Great Compromise- Plan proposed at the 1787 Constitutional Convention for creating a national bicameral legislature in which all states would be equally represented in the Senate, and proportionally represented in the House of Representatives.

3/5 Compromise- A compromise between states that a slave was equal to 3/5 of a person, and had 3/5 of a vote.

Electoral College- A combination of members from the House of Representatives and Congress that are combined in each state to elect the president on behalf of the citizens in each state.

The Federalist- A series of essays written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton which defended the new Constitution being written.

Anti-Federalists- Opponents of the Constitution in the debate over its ratification.

Bill of Rights- A part of the Constitution proposed by the Anti-Federalists that guaranteed certain rights to the citizens that could not be taken away by the government.

Federalist Party- Supporters of the Constitution who favored its ratification.

Judicial Review- A power implied in the Constitution that gives federal courts the right to review and determine the constitutionality of acts passed by Congress and state legislatures.

Jeffersonian Republicans- A political party who were against the beliefs of the Federalists, and who believed the Federalists were actually monarchists at heart.

Judiciary Act 1789- Act of Congress that implemented the judiciary clause of the Constitution by establishing the Supreme Court and a system of lower federal courts.

Implied Powers- The name given to the powers that were implied as having been given to the government in the Constitution. These were powers the government absolutely had to have in order to govern its people.

Hamilton’s Financial Plan- A financial plan designed by Alexander Hamilton. It was one that was meant to free the US of war debts by having the federal government assume the debts of individual states. Also, it included setting up a federal bank. A result of the plan was having the US capital moved to the boundary between Virginia and Maryland.

Edmund Genet- A French ambassador to the United States. He solicited contributions and distributed commissions authorizing American privateering raids against the British. He demanded that the president call Congress into session to debate whether or not America should go to war with Britain.

Intercourse Act- Basic law passed by Congress in 1790 which stated that the United States would regulate trade and interaction with Indian tribes.

Whiskey Rebellion- A rebellion against the tax imposed on the distillation of whiskey. The President believed that the nation was under siege from Indian attacks, international intrigue, and domestic insurrection at the time. He therefore sent about 13,000 troops to western Pennsylvania, where they were ordered to put down the rebellion.

Battle of Fallen Timbers- A battle between the Americans and Maumee Indians, fought August 20th, 1794 in northern Ohio. It was a battle in which the Americans, led by General Anthony Wayne, crushed the Indians.

Jay’s Treaty- Treaty with the British negotiated in 1794 in which the United States made major concessions to avoid a war over the British seizure of American ships.

Treaty of Greenville- Treaty of 1795 in which Native Americans in the Old Northwest were forced to cede most of the present state of Ohio to the United States.

Washington’s Farewell Address- Published by President Washington in his last few months. He said that the US should be disinterested in European affairs, but should continue with commercial relations.

Pinckney Treaty- A treaty negotiated with Spain which set a boundary at the 31st parallel, and which opened the Mississippi River to trade for America.

XYZ Affair- Diplomatic incident in 1798 in which Americans were outraged by the demand of the French for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats.

Alien and Sedition Acts- Collective name given to four acts passed by Congress in 1798 that curtailed freedom of speech and the liberty of foreign residents in the United States.

Quasi-War- Undeclared naval war between the United States and France between 1797 and 1800.

John Adams- The second president of the United States. He kept most of the cabinet members from Washington’s presidency, and had a problem with the French seizing American vessels and cargo. He gained much popularity from the XYZ Affair.

VA and KY Resolutions- Resolves given by Jefferson and James Madison, giving the power to states to nullify any laws they saw as unconstitutional.

John Jay- A chief justice of the Supreme Court, who was sent to Britain to arrange a settlement with the British so that the British could focus on defeating France without having to worry about America.

The Revolution of 1800- A name for the 1800 election given by Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson won the election over John Adams by winning the election in the southern and middle states.

States’ Rights- Favoring the rights of individual states over rights claimed by the national government.

Suffrage- The right to vote in a political election.

Charles Wilson Peale- The predominant painter of the Revolution, who during times of war used his talents on wartime propaganda. He is the planner of the Philadelphia museum.

Questions

1)      The Revolution’s main problem economically was that it left America in a great amount of debt. People proposed that individual states could come out of debt by selling land which they “owned”. This solution created tension, because not all of the states owned this free land. Also, the other states taxed their citizens, which the citizens did not find favorable.

2)      The nationalists were a group of people who wanted a strong, centralized government which could hold the nation together in a time of crisis. The Constitution of 1787 gave them this, as it created a government which included all of the states, and ewhich ensured all of the states representation among the other states.

3)      The Constitution of 1787 was ratified because the states believed that there was something in it that made them happy. Some people thought the government would be too powerful and like a monarchy, but others knew that it was essential to having a strong, powerful nation. The Anti-Federalists opposed the Constitution because they believed the government would be too powerful and controlling.

4)      They were members of the same party and had the same beliefs. They were also usually from the same regions of the country.

5)      George Washington and John Adams were both Federalists, and Thomas Jefferson was a Republican. Federalists aimed to have a strong, central government, and to have the Constitution ratified. Anti-federalists were more interested in States’ Rights, and having the constitution amended to include this.

6)      The US narrowly avoided war with France after France had been capturing American ships. The French wanted to then have the US bargain with them to make them stop. War was averted via Pinckney’s Treaty.

7)      The American government saw Indian land as for the taking as long as the Indians could not defend themselves. They were not concerned with getting involved in Indian relations. However, the government saw European relations as something to stay out of in order to prevent going to war.

8)      Loose constructionism was based on the idea that the federal government should leave the creation of laws to the states, where as strict constructionism believed that the creation of laws should be uniform throughout the nation, and that most laws should be created by the federal government. Loose constructionism was based on States’ Rights, and strict constructionism was based on Federalist principles.

 


Comments

Aye Wank
09/25/2012 4:19pm

thank you!!!!!!!!

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